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A look at electric car explosions

Updated: Apr 26, 2022

We've previously looked at electric car fires & provided an overview of our initial research findings that show they occur very rarely.


We're increasingly asked about the risk of an electric vehicle (EV) exploding, particularly in underground parking or roadways, such as tunnels. Our research identified & verified fourteen (14) EV explosion incidents since 2010 - that's from a global market of 10 million EVs in operation at the end of 2020.


Tesla Model S, Shanghai, China, April 2019. Not connected to charging, located in underground residential parking, possibly battery module fault.

While it's difficult to know exactly why explosion risk has become a hot topic, I believe the current prominence of EV fires in the media - a US insurance company releasing a comparison study & Elon Musk tweeting about EV battery fires - have understandably led to a fresh wave of uncertainty. In short, a kind of media-drive unconscious bias towards electrified transport.


An electric vehicle explosion, leading to a battery fire, is very rare. Let's have a look at what we mean by 'EV explosion', what the risk is & some of the circumstances in which they've occurred.


What is an electric car explosion?


While the terminology 'electric car explosion' is great for search engine clicks, the correct term we prefer to use is vapour cloud explosion (VCE).


When an EV battery pack goes into thermal runaway, toxic & flammable gases are vented from the lithium ion battery cells. In some cases, primarily in enclosed spaces, the gases form a large vapour cloud.


Around 700L of gases are released for every 1kWh of battery capacity*; to put that in perspective, a Tesla Model 3 can have up to a 75kWh battery, & some newer EV models coming to market may have around 100kWh.


When there is a point of ignition, such as an overheating battery cell, the vapour cloud does one of two things;

  • around 90% of the time, the gases ignite quickly but not explosively, sucking back the vapours as they burn;

  • or the gases explode, instantly propagating combustion at subsonic speeds, driven by heat transfer.

Both pose significant risks to emergency responders, as they may happen rapidly &, if you don't know the signs of thermal runaway, without much warning.


What does EV vapour cloud explosion look like?


Of the 14 incidents we've been able to verify, there are several with images or footage that clearly show the force of such an event, including the one above.


2019, Montreal, Canada - Hyundai Kona EV parked in a residential garage, not charging. Possible battery fault, blew garage door & roof away. Scrolling images, credit: CBC.


2019, Moscow, Russia - Tesla Model 3, collision with a parked tow truck while driving on freeway. Minor injuries to driver & his children. Footage credit: @gagorun.


2020, Fujian Province, China - BAIC EX360, Parked in open sided carport, connected to DC charging. Cause unknown. Blew doors, bonnet & debris through carport roof. Footage credit: unknown.


2021, Zhongshan, China - Chery Arrizo E, located in underground residential carpark & connected to charging. Driver sitting in back seat just prior to explosion. Unknown cause. Footage credit: click on image to view on Weibo.


What is the risk of electric car explosion?


As a reminder, EV fires overall are very rare, but EV vapour cloud explosions (VCE) are even less likely, involved in just 10.77% of all EV battery fire incidents since 2010.


When do EV explosions happen?


Of those 10.77% of incidents, we found:

Obviously, underground & enclosed spaces present the greatest cause for concern, primarily due to escape & evacuation, confinement of toxic gases near members of the public & access for emergency appliances & people. Additionally, some early testing that indicates battery fires may have the potential to cause issues with building structural integrity.


A complete overview of EV vapour cloud explosions since 2010 can be downloaded as a PDF or by clicking on the image.

EV VCE global 2010 - Jan 22 EV FireSafe
.pdf
Download PDF • 2.24MB


What do we still need to learn about EV vapour cloud explosions?


A lot. The EV FireSafe team will be working with a global network of fire & battery experts to better understand VCE behaviour & risk throughout 2022, & will share these findings as they become available.


If you'd like to keep up to date, we welcome you to join the mailing list where all information is shared first. You can also join us on Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn & YouTube.


As always, thanks for supporting our website & research!


*Stat courtesy of Professor Paul Christensen, University of Newcastle


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4 comentarios


The electrical grid is having blackouts and damage from present demand. Now we have the claim that the grid can handle another 300%+ capacity without total failure. Only Democrats could believe such fairy tails. People like AOC and Greta Thunberg.

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Contestando a

Right because they are to blame and not the overly greedy private electric companies that are causing these blackouts for "safety reasons." While making record profits and not using the subsidized money they get to repair, and build up infrastructure, but to lobby local and state governments to continue to raise rates, cause more blackouts, and pay out dividends even more to their share holders.


The only fairy tale is in thinking that the blame is on democrats alone. Most of this privatization of the electrical grid happened by republications. If you want to blame democrats then blame the right ones like Joe Manchin, and the other right wing democrats who love licking the boots of daddy corporate for that…


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Miembro desconocido
20 ago 2022

EV's are soon going to use 800 volt batteries. These if damaged will not only explode more violently but have the added advantage of potentially electrocuting people as well.

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Contestando a

These have already been debunked, and that is not how batteries work. To make a XXXv battery you need to connect the 3.7V cells in series X(times) the number of cells to equal the desired voltage. For 800V you need to have 217 3.7V cells in a series to make a single 800V stack. This does not make the battery more explosive or less explosive. What makes a battery more explosive is its degradation from dendrite formation and if its fully charged. A drained battery will be far less reactive than a fully charged battery.

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